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J Sustain Res. 2024;6(2):e240021.


Wider Landscapes Become Tourismscapes: Bibliometric Analysis and Identification of Key Issues in the Literature

Al Fauzi Rahmat 1,* , Zoltán Bujdosó 2, Kai Zhu 3, Hazem Kapil 4, Aida Kaliyeva 5, Azamat Beisakhmet 5, Katima Iskakova 5, Aiman Zhakupova 5, Zarema Abisheva 6, Abdinur Sultangaliyev 7, Roman Plokhikh 5, Lóránt Dénes Dávid 2,8,9,*

1 Doctoral School of Economic and Regional Sciences, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Gödöllő 2100, Hungary

2 Department of Sustainable Tourism, Institute of Rural Development and Sustainable Economy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Gödöllo 2100, Hungary

3 Faculty of Resources and Environmental Science, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China

4 Faculty of Urban and Regional Planning, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt

5 Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan

6 Land Management and Cadastre, Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan

7 Tourism Faculty, Kazakh Academy of Sport and Tourism, Almaty 050022, Kazakhstan

8 Faculty of Economics and Business, John von Neumann University, Kecskemét 6000, Hungary

9 Savaria Department of Business Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Savaria University Centre, Eötvös Loránd University, Szombathely 9700, Hungary

* Correspondence: Al Fauzi Rahmat, Lóránt Dénes Dávid.

Received: 30 March 2024; Accepted: 21 May 2024; Published: 23 May 2024


Background: Wider landscapes, nowadays, have been widely used as an attraction for the design of the tourism sector in a particular destination due to tourism demand. Many scholars have focused on the patterns and structures that emerge when landscapes transform into tourismscapes, but they have not yet included research on critical metrics and literature issues. Therefore, this article highlights the pivotal issues of transformation from landscapes into tourism landscapes in the context of bibliometric and literature reviews.

Methods: Using bibliometric methods, we extracted 8111 documents from the academic Scopus database and evaluated them through three primary tools such as the Biblioshiny by R-Studio programming language, VOSViewer, and NVivo 12 Plus software.

Results: The study showed that research on conveying landscapes into tourism landscapes continues to increase steadfastly every year. The study strengthened the measurement of significant impact and collaboration among authors, countries, and affiliates. Interconnected and networked terms such as tourism, land use, protected areas, sustainable development, tourism development, and climate change are crucial. Other essential terms also include environmental protection, conservation, and ecotourism. Significantly, in the land-changing process from landscapes to tourismscapes, the preservation of ecosystems and the conservation of land resources are essential for ensuring the long-term viability of the tourism industry. This attention also reviews thematic maps, conceptual structures, and theme hierarchies, highlighting several pivotal concepts in tourism landscapes.

Conclusions: This research finds that transforming natural landscapes into tourist destinations brings economic benefits to the tourism sector and causes changes in social structures. However, this also highlights the need for planned and long-term sustainability in addressing landscape-related environmental changes.

KEYWORDS: tourism scape; land transforming; tourism sustainability; bibliometric; pivotal issues


Substantial utilization and transformation have altered the original wider landscape, particularly in the context of tourism assets. Tourism landscapes have changed due to diversification and changes in decisions regarding land use, reflecting a shift towards the land’s value. As an illustration, land that was formerly utilized for agricultural purposes has been repurposed for the tourism industry, which has had an impact on the geographical characteristics of the tourism sector [1]. It also has resulted in modifications to coasts, mudflats, and woodlands, which have contributed to an increase in the demand for tourism services [2]; providing new landscape options. Wherein, the increase in tourism demand influences the provision of landscapes as an attraction for a destination to be managed for tourism purposes, where local communities control it [3]. Thus, tourism services gain from the transformation of wider land into parks, beaches, and other accessible spaces [4].

This geographical phenomenon of shifting land change into a tourism landscape occurs because there is a demand side and a distribution pattern of land use consumption from the supply side [5]. In which, this attention is also due to of the significant growth in international travelers [6]. It responded to by increasing tourism market demand which makes the tourism industry increasingly competitive to increase its resources [7]. Therefore, the trend of non-tourism purpose land degradation continues, primarily agricultural land, which is predicted to experience degradation, leading to the development of the tourism landscape in the years to come [8]. Thus encouraging changes in land use and impacting tourism ecosystem services in the future [9]. It has implications for significant changes in the development of other ecosystems around tourism destination locations, such as infrastructure development and changes in the livelihoods of local communities [10]. This process of intensification of land shift and use is also supported by dominant factors in the social dimension and is based on expanding economic growth, tourism resources, and regional policies related to tourism [11,12]. Moreover, the correlation between tourism trends and cultural resources tends to strengthen, natural resource depletion tends to increase simultaneously [13]. That is why there is much recognition of land changes towards tourism landscapes to encourage resource growth in sustainable development initiatives [1,14].

The term tourismscapes has gained prominence recently, indicating a new specific meaning related to transforming wider landscapes into tourism-oriented property. Scholars have highlighted the categorization of tourismscapes in different bodies of literature. Van der Duim [15] suggests that tourismscapes represent the interactions between humans and spatial elements in specific time and place contexts when providing and using tourism services. These interactions can manifest through performances, materials, and spatial layouts. Stoffelen and Vanneste [16] defined tourismscapes as a natural environment focused on tourism, with boundaries within the tourism industry. The increasing use of the term tourismscapes reflects the interdisciplinary concept of undeveloped land becoming into tourism landscapes through expansion and territorial complexity [17]. Hakim et al. [18] provided examples of tourism landscapes created from alterations in natural land and previous geographic sites. These examples demonstrate conservation initiatives aimed at transforming forest and plantation areas into tourism destinations that utilize local resources, fostering the development of community-based tourism. Rahmat et al. [19] noted the emergence of a diverse water-based tourism environment. Undeveloped terrains including hills, forests, and rural areas can provide a backdrop for tourism growth [14]. Therefore, studying tourist landscapes is crucial for comprehending the geographical positioning of a place in order to identify its fundamental traits [20]. This tendency allows rural landscapes and public spaces to be transformed into metropolitan areas, particularly by converting rural heritage into a cultural tourism destination [21].

The fragmentation of tourismscapes is theoretically rooted in a multidisciplinary integration of landscapes and tourist studies, as discussed in many literatures, however the discussion remains broad and somewhat constrained. According to bibliometric data from Jiménez-García et al. [22], wider landscapes have been explored from different scientific perspectives, particularly in relation to tourism landscapes, such as in the management and development of national parks, geotourism landscapes, and the enhancement of planning and environmental networks. Another scholar from Meneghello [17] discusses the presence of an additional conceptual foundation for the phrases tourist landscape, tourism landscape, and tourismscape. Studies have identified the spatial potential of the lagan environment at sacred places for sustainable tourism, highlighting its valuable tourist opportunities [23].

Transforming a wider landscape into a tourist destination necessitates evaluating the ecological stability and balance [24]. Conducting environmental audits and evaluating the effects of land use are crucial steps in this process [25]. Clear restrictions must be considered to reduce the susceptibility of transforming landscape patterns into tourism landscapes [26]. The intricate nature of utilizing land for tourism landscapes has repercussions. When transitioning from wider landscapes to tourist destinations, it is important to consider the potential loss of cultural values like woods, lakes, and mountains to prevent any detrimental impacts on the pristine environment [27]. Not all wider landscapes show signs of affecting tourist demand [28]. Therefore, rigorous land use planning is necessary to convert them into tourism landscapes, ensuring the preservation of ecosystem services [29].

Many research studies have examined how landscapes become tourismscapes. But, current research landscape on tourismscapes predominantly focuses on the immediate surroundings of tourist destinations, the broader ecological, tourist demand, as well as social and cultural contexts that shape tourism experiences. This focus limits understanding of tourism’s interplay with the broader landscape and its impacts. However, biometric evaluation studies and literature reviews of scientific research publications on landscape transformation into tourism landscapes are lacking. This gap needs further research and discussion. This research delves into the under-explored realm of wider landscape approaches to tourismscapes, offering a significant contribution to the field. This novel perspective broadens the conceptual framework, moving beyond the immediate tourist environment to encompass the intricate web of ecological, social, and cultural contexts that shape tourism experiences. This approach equips us with a powerful tool to analyze the complex interplay between tourismscape and its surrounding wider landscapes. Therefore, we address the limitations of tourismscape research by employing a bibliometric approach.

A robust bibliometric analysis and comprehensive literature review will elucidate the factors shaping broader landscape changes. Therefore, this research details several important components that become increasingly crucial for identifying hierarchical themes, structural concepts, terms, and thematic maps. Therefore, further discussion is needed on the transformation of land into tourist landscapes in order to explore the intricacies of introducing more innovative elements in bibliometric research. A mapping process is required to track the annual progress of global literature studies. This involves analyzing the growth in volume, geographical spread, authors, impact, source, affiliations, and key terms in the conceptual structure and thematic map that have garnered scholarly interest in recent years.


This paper utilized a bibliometric approach and literature review to assemble findings, analyze, and evaluate developmental trends of the topic by exploring pertinent research using key terms. We collected the data from the Scopus database and identified it as the primary data due to its wide range of credible literature sources and strong peer evaluations [30], which make it a valuable resource to feed an upcoming scholar [31]. It decided not to utilize additional database sources like the Web of Science, as Scopus has indexed an extensive variety of publications as well as a thorough repository of publication metadata, which helps avoid duplication and bias in this research.

The study applied the core seek query: TITLE-ABS-KEY (“land” OR “landscape” AND “tourism” OR “tourismscape”). It included significant categories such as selecting a yearly summary from 2000 to 2023 to analyze the development trend yearly. The following area to be chosen is all disciplines to handle the dissemination of knowledge in all areas of study. English is the primary and most extensively used language. Scholars disseminate their research, and being well-versed helps in the review process. The selected metadata pertains to a journal article. This type of topic rapidly reveals the latest research and identifies gaps for future research or suggestions due to its significant contribution and rapid development. We picked various datasets to evaluate country, publication, and affiliation viewpoints. The quantity of documents we have collected equals the produce of 8111 scientific publications. Overall the format is TITLE-ABS-KEY (“land” OR “landscape” AND “tourism” OR “tourismscape”) AND PUBYEAR > 1999 AND PUBYEAR < 2024 AND (LIMIT-TO (DOCTYPE, “ar”)) AND (LIMIT-TO (LANGUAGE, “English”)) AND (LIMIT-TO (SRCTYPE, “j”)).

We studied results and discussions with data extracted in CSV format from an original source. This was accomplished with the support of two software programs: the Biblioshiny package in R programming language [32], VOSViewer [33], and NVivo 12 plus version [34,35]. R can provide visual mapping visualizations of metadata that are clear and offer excellent value for observing the trajectory of the subject being examined. It is also utilized in its coding for more extensive theme matches and spreading concerns, even notions. Then, use VOSViewer to display important phrases circulating in the network, overlaying them based on density [36,37]. The three programs can access a vast collection of scientific literature for use in bibliometric investigations. We used R-Studio with Bibliosiny to create several dataset visualizations, including yearly publication trends in scientific journals, author productivity over time, total article publications and citations, as well as publisher and citation coverage. Biblioshiny is utilized to disseminate created and summarized themes by mapping themes and word cloud proportions [38]. We utilized the VOSViewer tool to analyze terms in network and collaboration visualizations, assess issue density, and track the migration of keyword terms annually using overlays. Also, NVivo was selected to evaluate the distribution of themes and identify substantial trends in research articles. It was also used to study the frequency of themes by adding remarks related to its development [39].

Figure 1. Core Dataset Information.

Figure 1 illustrates the diffusion of information from 2000 to 2023, with 2146 sources and 8111 documents identified, showing an annual growth rate of 11.01%. 19835 authors engaged in publishing publications in the collection, with 1762 writers of single-authored documents. International collaboration accounted for 21.09% of co-authorship, with an average of 3.19 co-authors per document. The authors discovered 20,711 keywords, 377,524 references, with an average document age of 7.55 and an average of 18.53 citations per document.


This section highlights several pivotal findings, such as the yearly evolution publication. Addressed the authors’ production over time, most relevant authors, authors’ local impact measure h-index, and most global cited documents. Additionally, our findings discuss division of topics based on scientific discipline, sources ranked for number of publications and impact publishers, affiliation distribution and country rank. More specifically, it discusses co-occurrences of territorial collaboration of scientific publication, three-field plot analysis, clustering visualization and word could distribution, and conceptual structure map—factor analysis based on multiple correspondence analysis and keywords. Besides, this result included the pivotal issues by themes of literature’s wider landscape to tourismscape.

Distribution of Scientific Publications Yearly

The annual distribution of scientific publications is crucial for scholars to monitor the progression and advancement of scientific knowledge throughout time. Through investigation of publication distribution, scholars can discern building patterns, focal points, and changes in research emphases within a specific discipline.

Figure 2. Annual Publication from 2000 to 2023 of wider landscape toward tourismscapes.

Figure 2, shows the number of scientific publications on the topic wider landscape toward tourismscapes experienced a significant increase during the period 2000–2023. In 2000, there were 84 scientific publications. This number increases to 929 in 2023. The most significant increase occurred between 2018 and 2023, with an average increase of 13% per year. Fluctuations in the number of scientific publications occurred only in the 2001–2004 period. In the process of producing scientific works, each author has dedicated their time and effort to contribute to the advancement of knowledge.

Author Production Yearly, Most Relevant Authors, Local Impact, Global Cited Document

In the spotlighted Figure 3a, which showcases the authors who have been actively engaged in the topic of wider landscapes toward tourismscape since the 2000s. Notably, Zhang Y has consistently shown high productivity throughout this period, maintaining their presence as prolific contributors until the end of 2023. Following them, Li Y emerged as a prominent author in the subsequent period, continuing the legacy of scholarly contributions, as well as the authors of Li J and Li X, the scholars who produced their scientific publications from 2006 until 2023.

Figure 3. Authors information among (a) authors’ production over time; (b) most relevant authors; (c) Authors’ local impact measure H-index; and (d) most global cited documents.

As shown in Figure 3b, the most relevant authors produced the most publications, with Zhang Y producing a total of 47 documents, followed by Li Y with 46 scientific publications, Wang Y with 42 publications, and Zhang J with 34 scientific publications. The tendency toward Figure 3c caused their publication to have an H-index impact. H-indices were important to authors as proof of productivity and affected how scientific work developed. The most are Zhang Y with total impact measures H-Index 15, followed by Li X and Zhang J with 14 H-indices, respectively. Liu J, with 13, as well as Li Y, Wang J, Wang Y, and Zhang H, got 12 for h-Index for their publication.

Furthermore, several authors have documents with the highest level of scientific publication with impactful documents, as Figure 3d shows where Snavely et al. [40] have a total of 1732 citations on the topic explored modeling and visualization of 3D scenes as photo tourism for world city and landscape sites. Raudsepp-Hearne et al. [41], with 1455 citations, raised the topic of determined a paradigm for assessing ecological services across landscapes, including tourismscape demonstrations. Then, Gössling [42] received 804 citations, with the topic focused the consequences of global environmental change on land use for tourism activities. More specifically, it shows that most of the top ten documents seized by several literatures are from 2002 to 2018, of which there are two documents in the 2009 and 2010 being in the top ten documents.

Distribution Topic by Discipline

The study also revealed the distribution of topic proportions in various scientific fields in Figure 4. This analysis can be particularly valuable in understanding the dominant areas of research within the realms of wider landscape toward tourismscapes. Among the top five fields in terms of topic distribution, Social Science emerged as the leading field, surpassing others with a total of 4270 documents or 26.8%. Following closely behind was the Environmental Science field, which accounted for 3662 publications or 23.0%. Business, Management, and Accounting had 1742 or 10.9%, the field of Agricultural and Biological Sciences contributed 1360 documents, making up 8.5% of the distribution. Earth and Planetary Sciences had 1301 publications, accounting for 8.2%.

Figure 4. Allocation of topic proportions among diverse scientific disciplines.
The Most Journal Contribution and Citation Analysis

A study of the top ten sources ranked by number of publications and publisher impact is essential for several reasons. For example, this report provides insight into the most influential and prolific publishers in the research field. By identifying these sources, researchers can prioritize reading and stay current on developments and findings. In addition, this report also analyzes the impact of publishers on the dissemination of research findings and scientific progress. Influential publishers often have a wide readership and can significantly contribute to the visibility and recognition of research work.

Table 1. Top ten sources ranked for number of publications and impact publishers.

Based on Table 1, it shows a number of publishers who have published articles and gained a high impact from the number of publications generated. The first to produce the topics of wider landscape toward tourismscapes is “Sustainability (Switzerland)” with 356 publications, followed by “Land” with a total of 187 publications, as well as “Land Use Policy” with 130 total publications. Following the number of citations, several journals have the highest number of publications, which are also included in the ten highest number of citations, such as “Tourism Management” which received 5184 citations, followed by “Land Use Policy” 4795 citations, and “Journal of Sustainable Tourism” which received 4700 citations. The source “Tourism Management” is in the top three sources with the most citations. While “Tourism Management” for total of document publication is 79 scientific publications. Surprisingly, several sources are not included in the highest number of documents production but have a high impact, such as “Landscape and Urban Planning” with 2658 cited, “Current Issues in Tourism” with 2143 cited, and “Ocean and Coastal Management” with 2131 citations. This concern indicates that sources that have a large number of publications do not necessarily have a high impact on citations. It implies that the sources in Table 1 have the scope and focus of the journal on the topic of wider landscape toward tourismscapes. This gives the scholar the attention to consider their scientific work to publishers who have the focus of research in interest.

Author Affiliation and Country Rank Analysis

Several affiliates with a high level of interest have been responsible for promoting the transmission of scientific concepts dealing with landscapes toward tourism landscapes; this transmission represents a significant step forward in bringing attention to specific issues. One of the most significant advances that has been achieved is the dissemination of scientific articles that have been published in trusted journal sources. The number of included publications from affiliates (see Table 2) and territory where there is interest in land transformation studies from countries offering ideas published in scientific journals has been presented.

Table 2. Affiliation distribution and Country rank.

There is a high focus on affiliation and country in both data types. First, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, as the highest affiliate, produced the highest number of publications with 285 total publications, followed by the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences with 90 scientific publication, University of Johannesburg and Wageningen University & Research with a total of 61 article journal publications, in respectively. On the other hand, territory has also been shown, and the United States has the most publications, with 1146 publications. China is in second place with 983 total publications, and the United Kingdom has 658 publications. Table 2, also implies that the highest affiliations are produced by affiliates originating from China. China also ranks second for the territorial part, with the country producing the most publications about wider landscape toward tourismscapes. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that the United State, China, United Kingdom, Spain, and Australia are leading the way in terms of cross-counties collaboration publication, particularly in the fields of tourismscape.

Co-Authorship Collaboration Analysis in Worldwide

The data presented in Figure 5 clearly illustrates the significant contribution of these countries to the dissemination of cross-country scientific publications over time. A number of nations have collaborated to produce scientific publications on the wider landscape towards tourismscape. The United States has notably collaborated with countries such as South Africa, India, Spain, Greece, among others. Similarly, China has collaborated with Indonesia, Japan, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Australia has also engaged in collaborative global research producing with Germany, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, and others. Overall, the United States is the dominant nation in collaboration, followed by China and the United Kingdom.

Figure 5. Co-occurrences of territorial collaboration of scientific publication.
Three-field Plot Analysis

To gain a deeper understanding of the dissemination of scientific publications, it is crucial to examine the specific plot that focuses on three-field plot aspects in the context of land and tourismscapes among author-keywords-publisher, and country-publisher-keywords. Within the realm of tourismscapes, there are fifteen distinct keywords by authors used that are widely explored (see Figure 6a), which is a notable concentration of publications being submitted to “Sustainability (Switzerland)”, “Land”, and “Journal of Sustainable Tourism” which are among the top ten publishers. Interestingly, China, Spain, USA, and Italy have published a significant number of their scientific works by territory distribution to “Sustainability (Switzerland)” and “Land” (see Figure 6b), both of which are affiliated with the MDPI publisher. Moreover, the prominence of the keyword “China” suggests that the territory plays a dominant in the field of tourismscapes.

Figure 6. Three-field plot among authors, keywords, sources, and territory. (a) Authors–Keywords–Source, (b) Country–Source–Keywords.
Network, Overlay, Density, and World Cloud Analysis

Figure 7a showed the co-occurrence of interrelated keyword networks, and there are strongly dominant keywords in each different cluster. Identified clusters with the same color in the same cluster, the same size, circle, and link line point to the strength of the keyword relationship. The Green cluster, which includes terms including “tourism”, “landscape”, “conservation”, and “ecotourism”, is marked by a significant co-occurrence keyword distribution. It is also correlated with other cluster keywords, such as the yellow cluster, which is associated with terms such as “climate change”, “land use”, “spatial planning”, and “land cover” at an elevated network degree. The purple cluster exhibits substantial network representation in connection to the term’s “sustainability”, “resilience”, “protected area”, “religious tourism”, and “pilgrimage”. The terms used within several clusters are interrelated, providing highly extensive topics related to wider landscape towards tourismscape.

In addition, keyword involvement in overlay visualization for this topic between 2000 and 2023 has been described in Figure 7b. Some of the words that the terms “environment”, “land degradation”, “globalization”, towards “tourism”, “landscape”, “land use”, “conservation”, and “ecotourism” are emerged in the years around 2014 to end of 2016. Over the following period, the term has grown to include terms such as “protected area”, “climate change”, “geopark”, “cultural landscape”, “cultural tourism”, and “tourism impact”, which arose approximately the year 2016 to early 2018. Recently generated keywords include “geoheritage”, “resilience”, “geosite”, “entrepreneurship”, “spatial planning”, and “social media”. Following the transformation of terms over time assists us understand the developments of research and the growth of new keywords. This is especially essential in the topics of wider landscape toward tourismscape, as it offers insight into the shifting terminology used in these domains.

Furthermore, the density level of dominant keywords used by scholars is effectively displayed in Figure 7c, where the intensity of color stacking and generated sizes indicates the significance of these keywords in relation to the topic of wider landscape, toward tourismscape. Several crucial terms have emerged, including the terms “tourism”, “landscape”, “conservation”, “ecotourism”, “land use”, and “sustainable development” have a high frequency of occurrence and indicate a degree of term distribution related to the topics of tourismscape. Lastly, in Figure 7d have played a significant role in the widespread discussion and exploration of these issues, including “tourism development”, “tourism”, “ecotourism”, “environmental protecting”, “tourism destination”, “land use”, “sustainable development”, “biodiversity”, and “tourism management”.

Figure 7. Clustering visualization and word could distribution. Noted: (a) Bibliographic coupling network of keywords, (b) Longitudinal evolution mapping in overlay visualization, (c) Co-occurrence density network of keywords and tiles, and (d) word cloud frequencies.
Conceptual Structure and Thematical Map Analysis

According to the factorial analysis in Figure 8, there are differences each cluster in the key terms. However, it is unclearly how the keywords distribution are related within a multiple cluster. There are, however, the conceptual structure map illustrates the interconnectedness of the terms within each cluster. The purple clusters exhibit a higher concentration of data dimensions and are interconnected, including categories such as “land use change”, “protected area”, “tourism attraction”, “landscape”, “tourism destination”, “tourism development”, and others. In contrast, the blue clusters consist of one term like “environmental protection”. Additionally, there are green clusters related to topics such as “ecosystem”, “conservation”, and “biodiversity”. Lastly, there is a red cluster focused on “human” directly connected to the well-being of “humans”.

Figure 8. Conceptual structure map—Factor analysis based on multiple correspondence analysis and keywords.

Figure 9 show the thematic maps, it is designed to portray the distribution of graphic theme elements or specific subject issues in relation to their level of development degree (density) and relevance degree (centrality). There are overlapping terms such as “sustainable development” and “ecotourism”, pointing to that the density and centrality of both of these domains are interconnected based on shared basic themes and underlying motor themes. In addition, there is information available on “tourism” and “landscape” that includes emerging in basic themes. Meanwhile, the terms “conservation” and “gis” have a niche thematic position, as well as the term of “geotourism” in deciding themes, all of the terms are lacked interconnection.

Figure 9. Thematic map on wider landscape toward tourismscape.
Hierarchy Content Analysis

Scholars have explored the growth of topics from wider landscapes to tourismscapes through many scientific concepts and developments, as shown in Figure 10. A number of studies have concentrated on aspects of tourismscape, including “tourism” and the development of tourismspace, which mainly involves the geographical aspect of tourism. Also, scholars have looked at the role of “tourists” who visit leisurely destinations, highlighting their significance for the sustainability of a tourism landscape. Development has an essential part in the concept of tourismscape, referring specifically to the improvement of infrastructure and how it’s related to the tourismscape. This applies to the concept of “service” where top-notch service must be delivered to ensure the sustainability of the tourismscape and its beneficial effect on the surrounding area. It is also connected to the term “economic”, as a tourismscape utilized as a leisure space offers economic benefits for development. Constructing a building. Other terms like “conservation” in tourism have been pointed out to ensure preservation of the environment and security, transforming the wider environment into a sustainable tourismscape for the benefit of the ecosystem and socio-economic community.

Figure 10. Hierarchy chat analysis on tourismscape literatures.


The study provided a significant contribution to the growth of tourism literature by investigating 8111 scientific publications from the Scopus database using bibliometric techniques, thematic mapping, factor analysis, and thematic concepts. The discussion can be addressed based on the results of this investigation. The study showed a consistent upward trajectory from 2004 to 2023, hitting its high in 2023 with 929 scientific documents. The essence of the author’s work has been identified, along with the inaccurate references from multiple sources. One of the most notable authors in terms of productivity over time is Zhang Y, who has contributed significant contributions with multiple publications, standing apart among other authors. Zhang Y has the highest local impact-measure H-index among the authors. Its most globally cited document is Snavely et al.’s work [40], with a total of 1732 citation. Social sciences are the primary discipline contributing to produce 26.8% of the topic. The leading publisher in this area is “Sustainability (Switzerland)”, focusing on the topic of tourism scape. On the other hand, “Tourism Management” is the publisher with the most significant impact compared to others. The majority of tourism literature by nation is from the United States, followed by China. China is the country with the most publications on this topic. The “Chinese Academy of Sciences” from China has resulted in 285 document publications, which makes it an outstanding contributor. Many countries engaged in this subject have shown a strong co-occurrence network in joint authoring. These observations provide insights into the development of the issue, experts’ interest in publication, and its impact on the world of literature. Key phrases that connect landscape and tourism have been identified, indicating an advanced vocabulary in the area. Scholars have been widely interested in it for years, and a noticeable change in terminology has been prominent in the expansion of themes.

In the investigation of the wider landscape toward tourismscape, there is a major shift in the network of keywords and density. This move is critical for future study due to it assists in discover identified gaps. While the keyword network largely focuses on terms such as “tourism”, “landscape”, “sustainability”, “sustainable development”, “ecotourism”, “protected area”, and “land use”, there are other keywords that should be highlighted for further research in tourism studies. In particular, “resilience”, “land degradation”, “branding”, and “political ecology” are critical due to the expected landscape changes in tourism destination locations. As a consequence, it is critical to understand the meaning of ecosystem services that have sustainability value. Furthermore, it is critical to ensure that places converted for tourism have no harmful influence on ecosystems, cultural heritage landscapes, or conservation initiatives in the neighboring areas. Several key conceptual frameworks have converged in the context of sustainable tourism development, covering a wide range of topics from landscape ecology to destination tourism landscapes. Such as land use planning, globalization, ecological preservation, economic sustainability policymaking, and environmental protection against deliberate changes. Key terms in the literary hierarchy of tourism case studies include tourism, tourist, services, development, economic, conservation, and ecosystem. Furthermore, yet changing larger landscapes into tourist destinations, it is critical to consider the resilience and impact of climate change, as well as important principles such as well-designed design, ecosystem services, and protected areas.

In a short practical review, the landscape is an important asset of a tourismcape and indirectly provides a framework for tourism development and regional growth [16]. In other words, the tourismcapes have impacted rapid investment and a region’s economy. This attention showed that tourist land aggregation patterns are shaped by tourist behavior trends and scenic resource distribution [43]. Tafidou et al. [44]’s research result showed that the landscape used for tourism activities has a positive impact on increasing employment opportunities for local communities. Therefore, this occurs due to increasing demand for tourism destinations, so it is necessary to estimate the impact of sustainable development [45]. It influences the progress of the surrounding environment [46], such as improving the quality of infrastructure, living conditions, and land use efficiency [47]. On the human side, the availability of landscapes such as plantations and grasslands has become a natural landscape many tourists enjoy [48]. Even though these impacts are partly beneficial, challenges still need to be underlined, such as the ownership status of land used as destination spots [49], also disaster and risk. In which, increased development due to urbanization, which has effects particularly related to water loss resources and natural disasters [50], causes changes in the natural landscape and the loss of agricultural land [51]. Others, for example geoparks like deserts struggle to attract visitors despite economic importance, hindered by safety concerns [52].

While landscape changes can promote tourism, study [43] reveals a rise in negative impacts, with forest disturbances most significant. In which, grassland and water body fragmentation, as well as showed a decrease. Responded on study [53]’s effective land-use mapping with Extreme Gradient Boosting Random Forest (including barren rock, open bush, grassland, and indigenous forest), we can implement assessment recommendations for tourism development and threat mitigation. As a result of the urbanization era, the human impact on natural landscapes is intensifying and causing severe environmental issues [54]. The ecological consequences of changes in land use have an impact on the environment, such as the level of urbanization, for example, land use for tourism, allowing the number of tourists to enter and changing the environmental landscape [55]. With increased urbanization and tourism demand, as well as a shift in the predicted tourism land use landscape, it is critical to consider land ownership rights in order to avoid future land conflicts [56]. So, as nature-based tourism booms, land-use change priorities shift beyond vast areas to encompass local sites, necessitating ecosystem service impact assessments [57]. Responsibility for the sustainability of tourism and consideration of the tourism environment in order to mitigate potential negative effects is required [45]. So, the strong push for development in investment practices and economic expansion in the tourism sector is caused by the presence of an increasingly dominant tourism landscape in various areas.

In addition, the connection of landscapes for tourism purposes raises concerns over their existence for ecologists, landscape architects, and geographers [20]. Such as concerns about the emerging trend of massive growth of tourism land in protected areas [47]. Also, the natural landscape of agricultural land shows that it is decreasing and losing its agricultural function, shifting to areas with recreational functions [58]. Problems also arise from the threat of losing the historical value of cultural heritage, conservation disruptions, and public policy changes [59]. This is a significant industry that is closely intertwined with the cultural landscape, as it exerts a substantial influence on environment [60]. Thus, reducing overexploitation of landscape resources for the tourism sector in terms of sustainability is very important [61]. There is a requirement for environmental accounting that can measure the sustainability of industrial development [62]. In this situation, the tourism industry is included in the development vision. This attention requires developing a landscape pattern strategy for each type of geographic destination. Hence, the quality of the resources has played a role in activating tourist destination locations in the future [63]. Shifting spatial flows and the use of territorial space in a tourism scene requires visionary planning and responsible management [64]. Building on the work of [65], who highlights the need for a balanced spatial structure to accommodate tourism demand across various zones and axes, to optimize the identification of regional characteristics. A study of [66] shows spatial clustering helps assess tourism’s eco-efficiency, with natural factors playing a key role. This calls for balanced eco-protection and tourism development. It will facilitate the development and localization of tourism that leverages aesthetics, cultural heritage, and recreational opportunities. This process-oriented stakeholder participation is emphasized [67]. In this context, considering the integrated relationship between the dimensions of economic activity, society, and the environment, issues related to sustainable land use become increasingly important [68]. These concerns highlight the need for a comprehensive assessment of tourismscape resource use and accounting for excessive environmental impacts resulting from expansion of tourism infrastructure.

Hence, these repercussions, which lead an increase in investment is projected, bringing positive economic and social outcomes for the surrounding area in terms of sustainability [69]. The interconnection of social and environmental elements requires tourism management to manage quality resources [7]. So, environmental, economic, and social balance can be achieved [70]. It has a different meaning for regions that depend on the potential of tourism landscapes, where the government must be able to create sustainable coastal management and ensure that it guarantees and protects natural and cultural resources [71]. For instance, in the case of coastal, which are currently experiencing changes in tourism development, careful and sustainable planning is needed for the function of coastal in the future [72]. Others, in term of coastal landscape renewal for tourism necessitates balancing economic development with environmental protection to ensure long-term sustainability [73]. In recent decades, significant alterations have occurred in coastal geomorphological systems due to both natural and anthropogenic factors, with the expansion of tourism being among the most prominent influences [74]. There is consideration of the interests/welfare of the population as an essential factor in sustainable land conversion for tourism development purposes [75]. Tourism infrastructure development has caused changes, the loss of forest and agricultural land, and increased demand for more intensive tourism products. Support also comes from the government, which increases the acquisition and protection of forest land to support tourism development; therefore, this all results in the degradation of the landscape sector [76]. Key considerations for land-use changes in tourism landscapes include: preserving biodiversity for ecological stability, safeguarding sociocultural diversity, and ensuring active economic engagement of local communities through local service and product offerings [77]. So, sustainable resource management and cultural protection are cornerstones of a tourismscape’s dynamic impact on community status and infrastructure development.


This study clearly shows that the terms that emerge in bibliometric studies play an important role in the linkage of terms in the study of wider landscape toward tourismscapes and are concepts that are interrelated and have been extensively studied in various contexts. In this attention, we have given the insistence that the tourism sector requires a potential landscape of the characteristics it possesses. The relationship between tourism and landscapes is very complex, with potential disaster and risks, conflicts and tensions of cultural values, and policy direction. As a result, it is important for tourism planning and marketing to maintain the integrity of tourismscapes. A bibliometric review of publications on wider landscape toward tourismscape has been carried out, which produces potential keywords and terms that need to be broadened, and tentative definitions of tourismscape and proposals for further research that need to be done. In term of landscape-tourism studies have witnessed a steady rise in scientific publications over 23 years, with Zhang, Y; Li X; and Zhang J emerging as influential authors in landscape change studies for tourism purposes. Environmental sciences are second on the disciplinary spectrum, after social sciences. ‘Sustainability (Switzerland)’ is the top-ranked publisher, while ‘Tourism Management’ has the highest impact. The Chinese Academy of Sciences is the top producer of scientific publications, while the United States generates the most publications overall. Keywords such as “tourism”, “land use”, “sustainability”, “ecotourism”, “environmental protection”, and “conservation” dominate tourismscape research. Further research is needed on ecosystems and services related to tourismscape-based themes as assessed.

This research implication highlighted the critical role of wider landscapes in future tourism development, catering to tourists’ evolving demands. However, achieving sustainable tourism in practice requires a multifaceted approach. This includes garnering support from various stakeholders, implementing supportive policies, securing adequate financial resources, conducting thorough environmental impact assessments, and prioritizing ecosystem health. Striking a balance between economic benefits and landscape preservation is crucial to preventing excessive land conversion for tourism purposes. Therefore, evaluation of tourismscapes can be done using a framework of conceptual and case methodology that incorporates landscape indicators and tourist landmarks in its evaluation. More importantly, its focal point lies in charting an agenda towards sustainable development setting up for the tourism industry, alongside a focus on ecological advantages. In short, transforming land into a tourism landscape obliges sustainability within specific geographical areas for tourism purpose, while mitigating potential adverse effects on the surrounding ecosystems.

The limitations of this article lie in fact that bibliometric studies are largely focused on the enumeration of publications, often ignoring crucial considerations of the qualitative aspects inherent in academic contributions. Furthermore, given that the main purpose of this paper is to carry out a descriptive bibliometric analysis of tourism space, this paper does not have any further proposals of theoretical propositions or hypotheses. Then it is necessary to conduct a thorough study of the proposal of important terms in this research as a reference part that still requires study in depth. Also, there is a need to extend the methods provided quantitative and qualitative in reaching factors involving land and tourismscape.


All data generated from the study are available in the manuscript.


Conceptualization, AFR and LDD; methodology, AFR, AS, and KZ; software, AFR and HK; validation, AFR, ZB and KI; formal analysis, AFR, AB and AZ; investigation, AFR, ZA, AK, and RP; resources, AFR and HK; data curation, AFR; writing—original draft preparation, AFR, ZB and LDD; writing—review and editing, AFR, ZA and AS; visualization, AFR and RP; supervision, AFR, ZB, KZ and LDD; project administration, AFR, AK, AB, KI, and AZ; funding acquisition, LDD. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


We acknowledged John von Neumann University for financial support.


This work was supported by the Flagship Research Groups Programme of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). All authors thank the editor and reviewers for their valuable feedback, which significantly improved this manuscript.















































































How to Cite This Article

Rahmat AF, Bujdosó Z, Zhu K, Kapil H, Kaliyeva A, Beisakhmet A, et al. Wider Landscapes Become Tourismscapes: Bibliometric Analysis and Identification of Key Issues in the Literature. J Sustain Res. 2024;6(2):e240021.

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